||William Gilbert coins the term electricity from the
Greek word elecktra
|The first known workable mechanical
calculating machine is invented by Germany’s Wilhelm Schickard.
The Egyptians or Chinese have probably been there first, but records
||France’s Blaise Pascal invents a machine, called the
Pascaline, that can add, subtract, and carry between digits.
||American Benjamin Franklin discovers
||France’s Joseph-Marie Jacquard completes
his fully automated loom that is programmed by punched cards.
||Samuel Morse invents a code (later
called Morse code) that used different numbers to represent the
letters of the English alphabet and the then digits.
||Christopher Sholes invents the typewriter in the United
States utilizing the QWERTY keyboard.
||American Alexander Graham Bell invents
|| Nikola Tesla patents the rotating field motor May
1, 1988 and later sells the rights to George Westinghouse. This
invention helps create and transmit AC power and today is still
a method for generating and distributing AC power.
||Herman Hollerith starts the Tabulating
Machine Company, the company later becomes the well-known computer
company IBM (International Business machines). Back in 1873, Hollerith
began making a habit out of jumping from his second-story schoolrooom
window to avoid having to take spelling lessons. Experts now recognise
him as having had a cogntive processing disability.
||German scientist Karl Ferdinand Braun invents the
|| The first radio message is sent
across the Atlantic Ocean in Morse code.
||Czech playwright Karel Capek coins the term "robot"
in the 1921 play RUR (Rossum's Universal Robots).
||The first publicly demonstrated
TV is demonstrated at Bell Telephone Laboratories. The Maltese Flag
is the image displayed.
||Dvorak keyboard developed.
||Germany’s Konrad Zuse creates the
Z1, one of the first binary digital computers and a machine that
could be controlled through a punch tape.
||Orson Welles and Houseman broadcast H.G. Welles War
of the Worlds on the airways October 30th as a Halloween spoof.
||George Stibitz completes the Complex
Number Calculator capable of adding, subtracting, multiplying and
dividing complex numbers. This device provides a foundation for
||ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer),
the first general-purpose electronic digital calculator begins to
be constructed. This computer by most is considered to be the first
electronic computer. However, according to a 1973 court ruling by
US Federal Judge Earl R. Larson, the Atanasoff-Berry
Computer was the world's first electronic digital computer.
It was built by
John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University
during the period of 1937 to 1942. The new device incorporated several
major innovations in computing, including the use of binary arithmetic,
regenerative memory, parallel processing, and separation of memory
and computing functions. The Atanasoff-Berry ruling ultimately superceded
and invalidated the ENIAC patent of Mauchly and Eckert and named
John Vincent Atanasoff the inventor of the electronic digital computer.
||The relay-based Harvard-IBM MARK
I a large programmable-controlled calculating machine provides vital
calculations for the U.S. Navy. Grace Hopper becomes its programmer.
||The term ‘bug’ as computer bug was termed by Grace
Hopper when programming the MARK II
||ENIAC computer completed.
||In support of the quest to develop more reliable,
powerful, flxible, smallet, cheaper, cooler-rnning and less power
consuming hearing aids, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William
Shockley invent the first transistor at the Bell Laboratories. Sony
is not convinced that this is the best use for the transistor and
acquires a licence for the technology for USD 25000, and later invents
the transistor radio.
|IBM builds the SSEC (Selective Sequence
Electronic Calculator). The computer contains 12,000 tubes.
||Andreew Donald Booth creates magnetic drum memory,
which is two inches long and two inches wide and capable of holding
10 bits per inch.
||Claude Shannon builds the first
machine that plays chess at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- The first electronic computer is created in Japan by Hideo
- The NICAD battery begins its commercial use.
||J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly
build the first general-purpose commercial computer that attracts
widespread attention, the UNIVAC.
||The Moore school completes a finished version of the
EDVAC, with a clock speed of one megahertz.
||IBM ships its first electronic computer,
the IBM 701.
- IBM ships the first mass-produced computer, the IBM 650 magnetic
- The first version of FORTRAN (formula translator) is published
- Dartmouth College’s John McCarthy coins the term "artificial
- Bell Labs introduces its first transistor computer. Transistors
are faster, smaller and create less heat than traditional vacuum
tubs, making these computers more reliable and efficient.
- The ENIAC is turned off for the last time. It’s estimated
to have done more arithmetic than the entire human race had
done prior to 1945.
||John McCarthy develops the basics behind the LISP
("LISt Processing," later also known as standing for "Lots
of Idiotic, Silly Parentheses") programming language during
a Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.
Lisp has gone on to become one of the major foundational languages
that has shaped programming and computer science. Though not originally
object-oriented, it would eventually become so with the emergence
of CLOS (Common Lisp Object System) in 1988.
IBM announces it will no longer be using vacuum tubes and releases
its first computer that had 2000 transistors, the IBM 7090.
Digital Equipment Corporation is founded by Kenneth Olsen. The
company will later become a major network computer manufacture.
The United States forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency
||Seymour Cray builds the first fully transistorized
computer for Control Data Corporation, the CDC 1604.
- Doug Englebart initially develops such theoretical concepts
as windows, mouse, multitasking, and even remote procedure calls.
- The first integrated circuit was produced by Texas Instruments
on 12th September 1958. Prior to this development an electronic
circuit consisted of resistors, capacitors, transistors and
wiring/etches, each component was manufactured separately by
different processes and integrated into an electronic circuit
on a PCB using wiring/etches and solder connections to create
a working circuit.
Jack Kilby came up with the idea of creating an integrated circuit''
using a silicon wafer. By adding impurities to the silicon they
could create resistance, capacitance, transistor junctions and
conductive paths on a single silicon "chip". This
IC would be a self contained circuit with no external wiring
or solder connections.
||The Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) programming
language is invented. COBOL would be the most popular/prolific language
- General Motors puts the first industrial robot – the 4,000
pound Unimate – to work in a New Jersey factory.
- IBM introduces the highly successful 1400 series mainframes.
Their success makes the case for general-purpose computers rather
than specialized systems.
- A young computer programmer from MIT, Steve Russell fueled
with inspiration from the writings of E.E. "Doc" Smith*,
led the team that created the first computer game. It took the
team about 200 man-hours to write the first version of Spacewar.
They used a PDP-1, an early DEC(Digital Equipment Corporation)
interactive mini computer which used a cathode-ray tube type
display and keyboard input. The million dollar computer was
a donation to MIT from DEC, who hoped MIT's think tank would
be able to do something remarkable with their product. A computer
game called Spacewar was the last thing DEC expected.
- Ole-Johan Dhal and Kristen Nygaard develop the Simula programming
language at the Norwegian Computing Center (NCC) in Oslo between
1962 and 1967. Simula is based somewhat on the ALGOL 60 programming
language. In many ways, this is where it all begins: Simula
is pretty much the first object-oriented programming language
ever. Together with the representational systems in AI in the
1960s (which give birth to later frame-based knowledge representations)
a very large portion of modern OO development techniques are
- Doug Engelbart invents and patents the first computer mouse.
- The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
is developed to standardize data exchange among computers.
- Dartmouth University’s John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop
Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language (BASIC).
- The TRANSIT system becomes operational on U.S. Polaris submarines.
This system later becomes known as GPS.
- IBM announces the first computer using integrated circuits.
- Ted Nelson coins the term "hypertext," which refers
to text that is not necessarily linear.
- Engineers at TRW Corporation develop a Generalized Information
Retrieval Language and System which later develops to the Pick
Database Management System used today on Unix and Windows systems.
- DEC introduces the PDP-8, the first commercially successful
- MIT’s Joseph Weizenbaum writes a program called ELIZA, that
makes the computer act as a psychotherapist.
- Stephen Gray establishes the first personal computer club,
the Amateur Computer Society
- The first handheld calculator using IC's was produced by TI.
It performed the 4 basic functions of the calculators of those
days add, subtract, multiply, divide
- Alan Shugart is generally regarded as the inventor of the
floppy drive while working for IBM in 1967. He later founded
Shugart Associates to design and manufacture floppy drives.
David Noble, one of Shugart's engineers at IBM actually came
up with the idea of 8" flexible media inside a cloth lined
- The LOGO programming language is developed and is later known
as "turtle graphics," a simplified interface useful
for teaching children computers.
- The first paper is published about the Advanced Research Projects
Agency Network (ARPANET).
- Intel Corporation is founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore
- The movie "2001: A Space Odyssey" is released.
- Edsger Dijkstra pens his famous letter entitled "GO TO
Statement Considered Harmful" -- perhaps the first stone
cast in the battle against spaghetti code.
- Control Data Corporation led by Seymour Cray, release the
CDC 7600, considered by most to be the first supercomputer
- AT&T Bell Laboratories develop Unix.
- Gary Starkweather, while working with Xerox invents the laser
- The U.S. Department of Defense sets up the Advanced Research
Projects Agency Network (ARPANET ) this network was the first
building block to what the Internet is today.
- CompuServe, the first commercial online service, is established
- AMD is founded.
- U.S. Department of Defense develops ada a computer programming
language capable of designing missile guidance systems.
- Intel introduces the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004.
- Centronics introduces the first dot matrix printer.
- Alan Kay coins the terms "object-oriented" and "object-oriented
- The first e-mail program is developed
- Niklaus Wirth of the Technical University of Zurich introduces
the Pascal programming language. Pascal eventually forms the
basis for many subsequent languages such as Modula-2, Modula-3
and Object Pascal, the popular object-oriented language in Borland
Delphi. The work of Wirth and other fathers of structured programming
(like Edsger Dijkstra, see also the entry for 1968) founds the
modern discipline of software engineering.
- First commercially available microprocessor and first floppy
disk are released.
- Vinton Cerf develops the host-level protocols for the ARPANET.
Cerf, hard of hearing since birth, married a lady who was deaf.
Cerf communicated with his wife by using text messaging. Had
it not been for his experience, Cerf may not have used text
messaging to the extent that he did, and he may not have integrated
e-mail as part of the functionality of ARPANET, the precursor
- Dennis Ritchie develops the initial version of the C programming
language at Bell Laboratories.
- Bell Laboratories begins development of the UNIX operating
system, using C.
- Nolan Bushnell develops PONG for Atari.
- The compact disc is invented in the United States.
- Xerox develops Smalltalk, one of the first object-oriented
languages, in the Learning Research Group at Xerox's Palo Alto
Research Center (Xerox PARC). Alan Kay is credited as the originator
of the major elements of the language which is based on Simula,
LISP and SketchPad with theories based on biological concepts
such as "cells" communicating with each other.
- Robert Metcalfe presents ideas about the Ethernet method of
network connection while at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.
The basic idea of "Internetting" is born.
- Donald Knuth lays down the foundations of modern software
engineering in a number of now-classic works.
- Intel’s improved microprocessor chip, the 8080 becomes a standard
in the microcomputing industry.
- The first Article on the Transmission Control Program (TCP)
- The first public packet switching network is deployed.
- IBM develops SEQUEL, which today is known as SQL today.
- Paul Allen and Bill Gates write the first computer language
program for personal computers, which is a form of BASIC designed
for the Altair. Gates later drops out of Harvard and founds
Microsoft with Allen.
- The first supercomputer, the Cray-1, is introduced.
Marvin Minsky introduces "frames" in artificial intelligence
(AI) programming, which are an ancestor of modern "objects"
in later languages such as C++.
- First International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB)
is held in Framingham, Massachusetts. During the conference,
such concepts as database abstraction and multi-level architectures
for relational databases are discussed, laying the groundwork
for modern client/server databases.
- Guy Lewis Steele Jr. and Gerald Jay Sussman invent Scheme
programming language (based on LISP) while at MIT.
- Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs found Apple Computers.
- In January of 1975, John Walker discovered a new way of distributing
his Univac game files and inadvertently wrote the world's first
computer virus. The game was called ANIMAL, a self-learning
variation of 20 questions, which asked you to think of an animal.
Walker coded a subroutine called PERVADE, whch could be called
by any program and quietly copied itslef to any directory the
current user had access to.
- The first 5.25-inch floppy disk is invented.
- The Intel 8086 is introduced
- The first popular word processor for microcomputers was Electric
Pencil written by Michael Shrayer.
- Xerox develops the widely used networking protocol Ethernet.
- Ward Christansen develops a popular modem transfer modem called
- ARCNET the first commercial network is developed
- USENET is established.
- The personal computer revolution begins with the launch of
the affordable Apple ][, Commodore PET (Personal Electronic
Transactor) and the Tandy Radio Shack TRS-80 in the same year.
Self-contained unit, with a CPU, RAM, ROM, keyboard, monitor
and tape recorder are priced at $495.00
- Epson introduces the TX-80, which becomes the first successful
dot matrix printer for personal computers.
- Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie publish The C Programming
Language, after years of development. While not object-oriented
itself, C heavily influences or forms the basis of many modern
OO programming languages such as C++, Objective C, Java, and
- Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston develop the first electronic
spreadsheet, called VisiCalc, for the Apple computer. VisiCalc
is perhaps the world's first "killer app."
- Ward Christensen and Randy Seuss have the first major microcomputer
bulletin board up and running in Chicago.
- Niklaus Wirth enhances and expands on his Pascal programming
language and introduces Modula-2.
- Software Arts Incorporated VisiCalc becomes the first electronic
spreadsheet and business program for PCs.
- Hayes markets its first modem which becomes the industry standard
- The U.S. Government publishes the preliminary specification
of the Ada programming language. Originally named "green"
for the color of the cover of the report in which it was first
described, it is later named for the first programmer, Ada Augusta
- Mike Cowlishaw develops the initial version of REXX (Restructured
Extended Executor) programming language at IBM.
- Atari introduces a coin-operated version of Asteroids
- Usenet is first started
- IBM hires Paul Allen and Bill Gates to create an operating
system for a new PC. The pair buy the rights to a simple operating
system manufactured by Seattle Computer Products and use it
as a template. IBM allows the two to keep the marketing rights
to the operating system, called DOS.
- The first Tandy Color computer is introduced
- Bjarne Stroustrup invents object-oriented extensions to C
and calls the new language "C with Classes" while
at Bell Laboratories. These object-oriented features were inspired
in part by earlier object-oriented languages such as Simula-67
- Grady Booch develops a design process for Ada -- referred
to as Booch Diagrams -- that evolves and is eventually applied
to other object-oriented languages
- Winchester hard drive is introduced (today known as the "hard
- MS-DOS 1.0 was released August, 1981.
- IBM introduces the IBM Personal Computer based on the Intel
8088 Microprocessor running at 4.77 MHz
- American National Standards Institute more commonly known
as ANSI was founded.
- Adam Osborne introduces the Osborne I, the first successful
portable computer, which weighs 25 pounds.
- Commodore ships the VIC-20, which later becomes the world’s
most popular computer costing only $299.95.
- Written for the Apple II, the first microcomputer virus was
mostly benign. In 9th grade, Richard Sktrenta, Jr. wrote a prgram
called Elk Cloner that stayed resident in system memory after
its disk was removed, but would later copy itself to any new
disk inserted into the drive. Elk Cloner counted the number
of times the infected disk was booted from, and on the fiftieth
boot, the screen would display a little poem.
- WordPerfect Corporation introduces WordPerfect 1.0 a word
processing program that will become one of the computer markets
most popular word processing program.
- Lotus Development Corporation is founded and Lotus 1-2-3,
a spreadsheet program is introduced.
- Columbia Data Systems, or as it was later known, Compaq Computer
Corp. is founded by Rod Canion and other Texas Instruments Incorporated
engineers. They introudced the first true IBM bus compatible
"clone" personal compute, the MPC, in June of 1982.
There had been several MS-DOS compatible personals up to that
time that ran DOS programs but they had proprietary buses or
designs that limited their broad acceptance. Columbia shipped
the first hard drive based systems (5MB formatted capacity)
before IBM did. Their controller was not compatible with the
controller that IBM shipped later and Columbia quickly responded
with a (mostly) IBM compatible replacement.
- The Commodore 64 begins to be sold with 64 kilobytes of random-access
memory and containing Microsoft BASIC and dropping in price
from $600 to $200 allows it to become the best-selling computer
of all time.
- The Intel 80286 processor is announced.
- Sun Microsystems introduces its first workstation, the Sun
- TCP/IP protocol suite becomes the standard for "the Internet.
- The computer is named Time magazine's Man of the Year
- MS-DOS 2.0 was released March, 1983.
- A committee is formed by the American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) to standardize C
- Stroustrup's "C with Classes" is renamed "C++."
- Microsoft Windows was announced November, 1983
- SETI is founded.
- The 3.5-inch floppy diskette is introduced and later becomes
an industry standard.
- IBM introduces the Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) video card
with higher resolution, more colors, and a quicker response
then previous video cards.
- Microsoft introduces MS-DOS 3.0 for the IBM PC AT and MS-DOS
3.1 for networks.
- University of Southern California professor Fred Cohen creates
alarm when he warns the public about computer viruses.
- The beginning of the greatest adventure computer gaming series
is released by Sierra. Kings Quest 1: Quest for the crown is
released to the public.
- Apple introduces the Macintosh, the first mainstream computer
with a graphical user interface (GUI)
- Richard Stallman founds the GNU Project.
- Domain Name Server (DNS) is introduced.
- The number of hosts on the Internet exceeds 1000.
- Intel introduces the 80386, a 16 MHz processor that incorporates
275,000 transistor and capable of accessing up to four gigabytes
of memory. The processor sells for $299.
- Digital Research releases GEM (Graphics Environment Manager),
beating Windows to market.
- Microsoft Windows 1.0 is introduced in November, 1985 and
is initially sold for $100.00.
- The Commodore Amiga and Atari ST ship. Both feature advanced
GUIs and multimedia capabilities and are touted as "color
- The first commercial CD-ROM drives ship based on Sony and
- Bjarne Stroustrup publishes The C++ Programming Language,
thus allowing C++ to beat out Objective-C and other contenders.
It emerges as the dominant object-oriented language in the computer
- Bertrand Meyer introduces Eiffel programming language.
- The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) is created,
forming a backbone for network connectivity. Several similar
networks around the world eventually combine with this network
to create the foundation for the modern Internet.
- Intel ships the 80386 chip.
- Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is introduced.
- The International Organization for Standards (ISO) develops
and standardizes Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
- First Conference on Object-oriented Programming, Systems,
Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA) is held in Portland, Oregon.
- Microsoft introduces Windows 2.0 in December 9, 1987. It can
utilize the protected mode of Intel's 80286 processor, thus
breaking the DOS memory barrier
- MS-DOS 3.3 was released April, 1987.
- IBM and Microsoft announce OS/2 1.0.
- Apogee is founded, Apogee is well known for its computer games
as well as the company who first released a 'Shareware' game.
- IBM introduces VGA.
- William Atkinson, an engineer at Apple, designs HyperCard,
an interactive rather than language-based programming tool with
strong user-interface features. This revolutionary concept helps
lay the foundation for visual component-based programming and
rapid application development (RAD).
- Larry Wall develops and releases Perl 1.0 (Practical Extraction
and Report Language) scripting language.
- Digital Equipment Corporation and Olivetti develop the Modula-3
programming language to correct some of the deficiencies of
Pascal and Modula-2.
- The number of hosts on the Internet exceeds 10,000.
- Creative Labs introduces the SoundBlaster, a sound card for
the PC that contains an 11-voice FM synthesizer with text-to-speech,
digitized voice input / output, a MIDI port, a joystick port
and bundled software.
- The second Edition of Kernighan and Ritchie's The C Programming
Language is published, incorporating the latest standards of
the proposed ANSI C specification.
- John Ousterhout develops Tcl (Tool Command Language) while
at University of California, Berkeley.
- The first issue of the Journal of Object-Oriented Programming
(JOOP) is published.
- IBM's OS/2 1.1 with Presentation Manager ships. It is the
first OS/2 with a GUI.
- Intel releases the 486DX processor, with more than 1 million
transistors and multitasking capabilities.
- Tim Berners-Lee's proposal regarding information management
and networks is written and circulated at CERN (the European
Particle Physics Laboratory).
- The Object Management Group (OMG) is founded. It is committed
to developing vendor independent specifications for the software
industry. (The consortium includes about 800 members as of the
year 2000.) The OMG begins development of specifications for
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). CORBA is
essentially middleware between applications and communications
that provides interoperability between systems and data.
- The ANSI C standard is finally adopted.
- The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is established.
- The number of hosts on the Internet exceeds 100,000.
- Microsoft releases Windows 3.0 operating system, the first
popular version of Windows. It offers significant improvements
including Program Manager, File Manager and improved stability.
It immediately dominates the market.
- Microsoft releases first version of Visual Basic, ushering
in a concept that eventually comes to be known as Rapid Application
Development (RAD). Programming with visual objects becomes a
- A project based on Berners-Lee's proposal of 1989 is started.
The name World Wide Web is conceived and the first WWW WYSIWYG
(What You See Is What You Get) browser/editor is produced on
a NeXT computer. Berners-Lee develops initial version of HTML
and other key WWW concepts.
- ARPANET ceases to exist.
- Guido van Rossum develops Python, an interpreted, interactive,
object-oriented programming language.
- Baezner, Lamoe and Unger describe Sim++, a distributed, discrete-event
- Linux is introduced by Linus Torvald.
- Sun Microsystems develops the Java programming language as
part of a research project to create software for consumer electronic
devices like TVs and VCRs. It contains many object-oriented
programming features similar to C++.
- The World Wide Web is launched. Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist
at the European Partial Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Geneva,
Switzerland develops the Web as a research tool.
- WWW is announced in the CERN newsletter, and a WWW browser
is demonstrated at Hypertext '91 in San Antonio, Texas.
- Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) and Gopher are introduced.
- The Trojan Room Coffee Pot camera is put up at Cambridge University's
Computer Laboratory, the first client/server application written
to use the lab's then-new RPC mechanism.
- Guido van Rossum releases Python to USENET.
- Following its decision not to develop operating systems cooperatively
with IBM, Microsoft changes the name of OS/2 to Windows NT.
- Pretty Good Privacy more commonly known as PGP a public key
used for encryption is released as Freeware by Philip Zimmerman.
- TrueType a scalable font is introduced and developed by Microsoft
and Apple and is used on all Apple computers and PC computers
- MS-DOS 5.0 was released June, 1991.
- Intel releases the 486DX2 chip with a clock doubling ability
that generates higher operating speeds.
- IBM's OS/2 2.0 begins shipping. The release includes IBM's
Systems Object Model (SOM), a multi-platform and language-neutral
object model compliant with CORBA 1.1.
- An alliance of companies including Apple, IBM and Lotus begin
developing OpenDoc. OpenDoc is a multi-platform and language-neutral
object model based somewhat on IBM's SOM.
- Microsoft releases the Windows 3.1 operating system.
- The first GUI client for X is completed.
- Microsoft introduces Windows 3.1. It sells more than 1 million
copies within the first two months of its release.
- The number of hosts on the Internet exceeds 1 million.
- Intel releases the Pentium Processor. The processor is a 60
MHz processor, incorporates 3.2 million transistors and sells
for $878.00. The first models are plagued by an FPU bug.
- The PC game DOOM by IdSoftware was released December 1993.
Today DOOM is thought of as a turning point for first person
shooters and for games in general.
- The first release of Marc Andreessen's Mosaic is unveiled
at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).
- Microsoft ships the first version of Component Object Model
(COM). COM competes with OpenDoc and CORBA, but is not CORBA-compliant.
COM forms the basis of -- or is directly related to -- other
Microsoft technologies such as Object Linking and Embedding
(OLE), ActiveX, Distributed COM (DCOM), and others.
- Microsoft gains the reputation of the confusing practice of
naming and renaming similar technologies based on marketing
- The Trojan Room Coffee Pot is put on the Web. It is believed
to be the first image on the WWW.
- Commodore computers files Bankruptcy.
- Microsoft releases its beta for Windows 95, code named Chicago
- MS-DOS 6.22 was released April, 1994
- YAHOO is created in April, 1994.
- The first draft of the proposed ANSI standard for C++ is released.
- Mosaic Communcation Corp. (later to become Netscape) is formed
by Marc Andreessen, James Clark et al.
- Perl 5 is released. It is a major rewrite of previous versions,
and the first to add OO capabilities to the popular scripting
- Rasmus Lerdorf creates the initial version of Hypertext Preprocessor
(PHP), an open-source server scripting language similar to C.
- Initial CORBA 2.0 specification is released; it specifies
how ORBs from different vendors can interoperate.
- IBM releases OS/2 Warp 3.0.
- The Unified Modeling Language (UML) takes its initial form
as the main object-oriented design and analysis methodologists
(Grady Booch, Ivar Jacobson, and Jim Rumbaugh) join forces to
define a method for specifiying, visualizing and documenting
the elements of an object-oriented system. The UML standard
builds on Booch, OMT and OOSE methods and is developed under
the auspices of the Open Management Group (OMG).
- The W3 Consortium is formed, and the first meeting is held
at MIT in December.
- Microsoft Releases Windows 95, within four days the software
sells more then 1 million copies.
- NSFNET ceases to be the main U.S. backbone and is replaced
by network providers.
- The Apache Group is organized and the Apache HTTP Server Project
is founded to develop open-source web server software based
on NCSA's httpd server. Apache uses modules rather than components,
but the ideas are similar in many ways.
- Sun Microsystems officially launches Java to the public with
free client software.
- Micosoft releases the 32-bit Windows 95 operating system,
a major milestone for Windows and a significant upgrade from
3.x. Win32, the API in Windows 95 and NT, includes further enhancements
to OLE, based originally on Microsoft's COM.
- Microsoft's Visual Basic gains widespread use with VBX (Visual
Basic Custom Control) technology. VBX components are eventually
replaced by ActiveX controls and components, which are based
on evolving COM technology.
- Microsoft releases the first version of its DirectX software
- Borland releases Delphi 1, a Rapid Application Development
(RAD) programming environment. It is the first mainstream object-oriented
visual development tool with an optimizing native-code compiler
and scalable database engine. Delphi is based on an object-oriented
version of Pascal called "Object Pascal." Borland
quickly follows the release of Windows 95 with a 32-bit version
of Delphi, becoming the first 32-bit RAD tool. http://www.borland.com
- Macromedia purchases FutureWave and later releases Macromedia
- Sun releases Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.0.
- Microsoft coins the term ActiveX at the Internet Professional
Developers Conference (Internet PDC) in March.
- Microsoft ships Windows NT 4.0. It features the Windows 95
user interface and numerous bundled server processes, notably
its Internet Information Server (IIS) Web server.
- Sun introduces the Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API specification,
the first standardized effort to integrate relational databases
with Java programs.
- Microsoft releases Internet Explorer 3.0, which begins to
make up significant ground on Netscape's Navigator.
- Allaire releases ColdFusion, an application server with Cold
Fusion Markup Language (CFML) that integrates server-side, Web-oriented
scripting, allowing developers to build advanced Web/database
applications. This sparks a trend of many application server
tools from many vendors.
- The KDE project is founded.
- Microsoft releases Internet Explorer 4.0 and gains dominance
in browser technology.
- IBM’s Deep Blue computer defeats world champion chess player
Garry Kasparov in their second six-game showdown, winning the
tie-breaking game in only 62 minutes.
- The Intel Pentium II 233 MHz processor is released.
- W3C publishes recommendations for Extensible Markup Language
- Microsoft launches Windows 98.
- The ANSI C++ standard is published.
- Netscape releases source code for its Navigator Web browser
and makes it freely available to the public. The Mozilla Organization
coordinates how this source code is developed. The Mozilla Project
includes XPCOM, a "lightweight cross-platform COM work-alike."
- The Intel Pentium III 500 MHz is released.
- NVIDIA introduces the GPU.
- 1 GHz mainstream computers with CPUs from AMD and Intel are
- Microsoft releases Windows 2000 and Internet Information Server
(IIS) 5.0 with ASP 3.0.
- SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is released.
- Microsoft announces C#.
- IBM ships WebSphere with support for Java servlets, JavaServer
Pages, XML, EJB components, and CORBA. This is a good example
of the growing trend of Web server appliances and application
servers that make use of the latest object-oriented technologies
- Microsoft ships Windows Me.
- The StarOffice source hits the Net at OpenOffice.org.
- Mozilla 0.6 is released.
- Many experts, governments and businesses feared that January
1st 2000 could cause serious issues with the date stamp on computers.
The belief was that because many old computers relied off of
the last two digits of a year such as 99 for 1999, when the
year 2000 came 2000 would set the computers to 00 causing the
computer to think it was 1900. Called the Year 2000 bug many
individuals feared for the worst however because of preparation
Year 2000 only caused a few glitches, however no catastrophes.
- Microsoft Windows XP home and professional editions are released
October 25, 2001.
- Borland ships Kylix, the first native rapid application development
tool for Linux. It is modeled on Delphi and C++ Builder and
features CLX components/objects, which include many visual,
nonvisual, database, and networking components.
Trojan Room Coffee Pot is taken down.